The Tiffy Template is a frugal invention to help the blind identify currency notes and avoid being short changed. Every blind person in India can get the Tiffy Template for free.

A blind girl named Tiffany Brar is a crusader for independent living for the visually challenged. Tiffany travels alone by public transport, runs a mobile school for the blind and is inspiring other people to become independent too.

In her quest for independent living, Tiffany encountered a problem when it came to transacting with currency notes. She was not quite able to identify the different denominations and found that people cheated her sometimes.

She mentioned this to her friend Paul D’Souza, an obsessive innovator, who solved her problem right away with a simple invention.

The Tiffy Template

Paul developed a grooved plate that is as small as a credit card. He named it after Tiffany and called it the Tiffy Template. By folding and placing currency notes on the Tiffy Template, any blind person can differentiate between the notes.

There is a pattern to the length and width of each Indian currency note. Paul made grooves on the template to help the blind ascertain the different widths and lengths of the notes.




Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games

Ancient India was a land of sages, saints and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. Ancient India’s contribution to science and technology include:

  • Mathematics – Vedic literature is replete with concepts of zero, the techniques of algebra and algorithm, square root and cube root. Arguably, the origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.
  • Astronomy – Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to astronomy.
  • Physics – Concepts of atom and theory of relativity were explicitly stated by an Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.
  • Chemistry – Principles of chemistry did not remain abstract but also found expression in distillation of perfumes, aromatic liquids, manufacturing of dyes and pigments, and extraction of sugar.
  • Medical science & surgery – Around 800 BC, first compendium on medicine and surgery was complied in ancient India.
  • Fine Arts – Vedas were recited and recitation has to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of sound and phonetics. The natural corollary were emergence of music and other forms of performing arts.
  • Mechanical & production technology – Greek historians have testified to smelting of certain metals in India in the 4th century BC.
  • Civil engineering & architecture – The discovery of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of civil engineering & architecture, which blossomed to a highly precise science of civil engineering and architecture and found expression in innumerable monuments of ancient India.
  • Shipbuilding & navigation – Sanskrit and Pali texts have several references to maritime activity by ancient Indians.Sports & games – Ancient India is the birth place of chess, ludo, snakes and ladders and playing cards.




India, if not completely but is almost synonymous with the word corruption. Numerous scams in the recent years explain the saga of corruption. Almost all the government departments are affected from it. Corruption is regarded as one of the biggest reasons of poverty in India.

Economic policies

It is believed that economic reforms started in early 1990s are responsible for the fall down of rural economy in India. It also led to the agrarian crisis. Because of high debt, poor farmers are left with no other choice than to commit suicide. According to official statistics, number of farmers committing suicides has also increased since 1997. The new policies by the government encourage farmers to switch to cash crops in place of traditional crops. But this has led to a manifold increase in farm input cost which ultimate resulted in the economic burden and thus poverty. Also villages in India are not self sufficient like they used to be. The rural youth is mostly not well educated, lack skill and even not interested in farming. All these are enough for a disastrous and poor future. Government should come up with plans to make villages self-reliant. Skill based education must be provided to the youth.

Mismanagement and faulty development model

Much of the fund raised or allocated to the anti poverty schemes is consumed in administrative cost. So the entire chain that is formed to help the poor does not allow this to happen.

High population growth rate

Ever increasing population is not a direct cause of poverty but it is an effect. It is rightly said that excess of everything is bad. This is true in this case as well. More people mean the need of more resource, food etc. But if this surplus is trained in a right way then it can take part in the economic development of the country.

Ever increasing economic inequality

India’s growth model for sure has benefitted the businessmen but failed when we see that near about 213 million Indians go hungry every night. Rights of organized as well as unorganized workers are being violated. They are underpaid and not paid according to the industrial growth and ever rising inflation. Due to such a visible inequality each year millions of girls are sexually exploited and trafficked for money. At the same time child labour has also increased. Wealthy are acquiring more wealth. In such an inequal scenario, top 5% of households have 38% of the total assets of India whereas bottom 60% has merely 13% of the assets.

Lack of small scale sectors – Majority of economic policies and reforms are not friendly towards small scale industries. So these policies are making and creating bureaucrats but suppressing entrepreneurs.



-Geraldine Kaye Medrocillo


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